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mylove91
#1 Posted : Wednesday, April 23, 2008 5:50:38 AM(UTC)
mylove91

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Joined: 4/22/2008(UTC)
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1- HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN/HIỆN TẠI ĐƠN TIẾP DIỄN


1- THÌ HIỆN TẠI ÐƠN
 
Thì hiện tại đơn giản diễn tả hành động có thật trong quá khứ, hiện tại, và tương lai.  Thì hiện tại đơn giản cũng diễn tả thói quen và hoạt động hàng ngày.
CHỦ TỪ + ÐỘNG TỪ (động từ ở thì hiện tại, động từ thêm "S" hay "ES" nếu chủ từ là ngôi 3 số ít:  She, he, it, Mary, John)
Thì hiện tại đơn giản có thể diễn tả thời gian trong tương lai khi ý nghĩ đó thuộc về thời khóa biểu. 
The English alphabet consists of 26 letters.
The sun rises in the east.
She goes to school every day.
The boy always wakes up at 8 every morning.
SAI:
They are always trying to help him. 
We are studying every day.
ÐÚNG:
They always try to help him.
We study every day.
The game starts in ten minutes.
My class finishes next month.
 
Cụm từ và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  Always, usually, often, sometimes etc., (a fact, habit, or repeated action), every time, as a rule, every day (every other day), once (a month), once in a while
 
THÌ HIỆN TẠI TIẾP DIỄN
 
Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn diễn tả hành động đang xảy ra.
CHỦ TỪ + IS/ARE/AM + ÐỘNG TỪ THÊM -ING
Một hành động gì đó đang xảy ra tuần này, tháng này, hoặc năm này.
Thì hiện tại tiếp diễn có thể diễn tả thời gian trong tương lai khi ý nghĩ đó là 1 sự định sẵn.
I'm typing right now.
It is raining at the moment.
Shhh! The baby is sleeping.
She is taking ESL 107 this semester.
Tammy is writing a letter to her mom tomorrow.
Jack is visiting his relatives tomorrow.
SAI:  It is raining tomorrow.  (Rain không thể là 1 sự dự định trước
 
Cụm và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  Right now, at the moment, at present, now, shhh!, listen!, look!, this semester.
 
 


SIMPLE PRESENT

Tóm tắt:


Present simple để chỉ:

1) Sự việc xảy ra trong hiện tại

2) Những sự thật hiển nhiên, sự việc lập đi lập lại hằng ngày: Thí dụ: Trái đất quay xung quanh mặt trời.
Hằng ngày tôi thức dậy lúc 7 giờ sáng

3) Những động từ không ảnh hưởng đến thời gian: động từ tĩnh (static verbs)

To belong to, to cost, to know, to believe, to like,
to love, to mean, to see, to understand ...
I (dis)like / love / hate / want that girl
I believe / suppose / think you’re right
I hear / see / feel the world around us
It tastes / smells good

4) Sau những liên từ WHEN, AS SOON AS

5) THỂ NGHI VẤN:
Thêm đằng trước DO hay DOES (ngôi thứ 3 số ít)

6) THỂ PHỦ ÐỊNH:
thêm DON'T , DOESN'T

__________________

The simple present is used to express actions which take place in the present or which occur regularly (Things that happen repetedly) .
It also serves to express general or absolute statements not anchored in a particular time frame (Things in general) 

I work at home.
The earth revolves around the sun
Politics are a dirty business.
Jill speaks four languages fluently.

I get up at seven o’clock every morning
Mrs. Smith teaches English at my school
On Sundays, we like to fish.




INTERROGATIVE FORM

In the interrogative, the present is generally introduced by a form of the verb "to do" ("do / does"Wink:
Does your father like to cook?
Do you have time to stop by my place?


NEGATIVE FORM

The appropriate form of the verb "to do" will also be used for the negative:
I do not (don't) work at home.
No, he does not (doesn't) like to cook.

AFTER WHEN AS SOON AS ...

After the conjunctions "when," "as soon as," etc., the present is used, even though actions expressed may refer to the future:
She'll come when she can.
He'll pay us as soon as we finish.


Forming the simple present
The present is extremely regular in its conjugation. As a general rule, one uses the base form of the infinitive (minus the preposition "to"Wink.

For the third person singular ("he," "she," "it"Wink, an "-s" is added if the verb ends in a consonant,

or "-es" if the verb ends with a vowel:

To work


I work
you work
he / she / it works
we work
they work


To go

I go
you go
he / she / it goes
we go
they go

However:

verbs ending with "consonant + y" (for example, "to try," "to cry," "to bury," etc.) will end in "-ies" in the third person singular:

To bury


I bury
you bury
he / she buries
we bury
they bury

"To have", "to be"
The only irregular verbs in the present are "to have," "to be," and the modal verbs.

To have


I have
you have
he / she has
we have
they have

To be

I am
you are
he / she is
we are
they are
 
 


PRESENT CONTINUOUS

TÓM TẮT


1) Ðể nói sự vật xảy ra trong lúc ta đang nói chuyện

2) Nói một việc mà ta đã chuẩn bị để làm.
Một tương lai chắc chắn đã soạn sẵn

3) Những động từ tĩnh trong ý nghĩa hiện tại

____________________________

1* To say that st is happening at or around the time of speaking

2* you are talking about what you have already arranged to do

3* Les verbes statistiques dans le sens du présent simple

***
 
1)
Don’t interrupt while I’m talking to somebody else

Please be quiet, I’m watching a good programme

He’s trying to get the car to start /Not now, I’m thinking

 
2)
I can’t meet you tomorrow because my parents are coming to see me

What are you doing tomorrow evening ?
- I’m going to the theatre

This is Tom’s diary for next week:
he’s playing tennis on Monday, he’s going to the dentist on Tuesday, he’ having dinner on Friday...
 
3)
What are you thinking about ?

We’re not seeing a lot of him these days

Are you not feeling well today ?

We’re tasting the wine to see if it’s alright
 
 
2- HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH/HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN


THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH
CHỦ TỪ + HAVE/ HAS + QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ (PAST PARTICIPLE)
Thì hiện tại hoàn thành diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra hoặc chưa bao giờ xảy ra ở 1 thời gian không xác định trong quá khứ. 
Thì hiện tại hoàn thành cũng diễn tả sự lập đi lập lại của 1 hành động trong quá khứ.
Thì hiện tại hoàn thành cũng được dùng với i sincefor.
Since + thời gian bắt đầu (1995, I was young, this morning etc.) Khi người nói dùng since, người nghe phải tính thời gian là bao lâu.
For + khoảng thời gian (từ lúc đầu tới bây giờ) Khi người nói dùng for, người nói phải tính thời gian là bao lâu.
She has never seen snow.
I have gone to Disneyland several times.
We have been here since 1995.
They have known me for five years.
Cụm và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  Never, ever, in the last fifty years, this semester, since, for, so far, up to now, up until now, up to the present, yet, recently, lately, in recent years, many times, once, twice, and in his/her whole life
THÌ HIỆN TẠI HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN
Thì hiện tại hoàn thành tiếp diễn nhấn mạnh khoảng thời gian của 1 hành động đã xảy ra trong quá khứ và tiếp tục tới hiện tại (có thể tới tương lai).
CHỦ TỪ + HAVE/HAS + BEEN + ÐỘNG TỪ THÊM -ING
I have been waiting for you about 20 minutes.
The child has been sleeping all afternoon.
Cụm và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  All day, all week, since, for, for a long time, almost every day this week, recently, lately, in the past week, in recent years, up until now, and so far
Kevin Khôi Trương
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS




I have been doing
You have been doing
He has been doing
We have been doing
You have been doing
They have been doing

TÓM TẮT:

Ðể nói một hành động kéo dài trong quá khứ và VỪA MỚI ngừng.

Ðể hỏi việc xảy ra bao nhiêu lâu trong quá khứ và ta hứng thú câu chuyện: hành động chưa chấm dứt.


**************************

This tense is formed with the modal "HAVE" or "HAS" (for third-person singular subjects) plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

1* To talk about a long action which began in the past and has just stopped.

2* To ask or say how long st has been happened. The action began in the past & is still happening or has just stopped

how long ; for ( for 5 years ; for over an hour ); since ; today ; recently ;

3* For actions repeated over a period of time ( how long ; for ; since )

*** To say how long st has been happening .

*** We are interested in the action : the action has not been finished .

 
1* I have been working in the garden all morning.
George has been painting that house for as long as I can remember.
You're out of breath . Have you been running ?
She has been running and her heart is still beating fast.
Why are your clothes so dirty? What have you been doing ?
That man over there is bright red. I think he's been sunbathing.
Janet is hot and tired . She has been playing tennis. 
Ann is very tired . She has been working hard
It has just been raining. 

2* It is raining now. It began to rain 2 hours ago and it is still raining . It has been raining for 2 hours 
Have you been working hard today ?
How long have you been learning English ?
I've been waiting here for over an hour
I've been watching TV since two 2 o'clock .
George hasn't been feeling well recently.

3* She has been playing tennis since she was eight 
 How long have you been smoking ?
It's raining : How long has it been raining ? 
My foot is hurting : How long has your foot been hurting ? 
Kevin is studying He has been studying for 3 hours  
 Mary is working in London . She started working there on 20 May . She has been working since 20 May.
Nam Phương
 
3- QUÁ KHỨ/QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN


THÌ QUÁ KHỨ ÐƠN
Thì quá khứ đơn diễn tả hành động đã xảy ra và kết thúc trong quá khứ với thời gian xác định.
CHỦ TỪ + ÐỘNG TỪ QUÁ KHỨ
When + thì quá khứ đơn (simple past)
When + hành động thứ nhất 
I went to the library last night.
She came to the U.S. five years ago.
He met me in 1999.
When they saw the accident, they called the police. 
Cụm và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  last night, last year, last time, etc., ago, in 1999, today, yesterday,   then = at that time, in the 1800's, in the 19th century, when, and for
Today đôi khi được dùng ở thì hiện tại tiếp diễn và tương lai đơn.  For đôi khi được dùng ở thì hiện tại hoàn thành (present perfect). 
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ TIẾP DIỄN
In (a), 2 hành động đã xảy ra cùng lúc.  Nhưng hành động thứ nhất đã xảy ra sớm hơn và đã đang tiếp tục xảy ra thì hành động thứ hai xảy ra.
CHỦ TỪ + WERE/WAS + ÐỘNG TÙ THÊM -ING
While + thì quá khứ tiếp diễn (past progressive)
In (b), 2 hành động đã xảy ra cùng  một lúc.
a.  What were you doing when I called you last night?
b.  He was watching TV while his wife was cleaning the bedroom.
Cụm và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  While, at that very moment, at 10:00 last night, and this morning (afternoon)
Kevin Khôi Trương
 
SIMPLE PAST CONTINUOUS




I was doing
You were doing
He was doing
We were doing
You were doing
They were doing



TÓM TẮT:

Hành động kéo dài, tiếp tục, ở một thời điểm nào đó trong quá khứ

Ðể nói hành động kéo dài, đang ở giữa công việc, trong một thời gian nào đó. Không cho biết khi nào chấm dứt.

*********************************

1* The PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE indicates continuing action, something that was happening, going on, at some point in the past. This tense is formed with the helping "to be" verb, in the past tense, plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

2* To say that someone was in the middle of doing something at a certain time.

3* To say that st happend in the middle of st.

4* It doesn't tell us wether an action was finished or not.

5* To tell how long something has been happening  


Examples:

1* I was riding my bike all day yesterday.
Joel was being a terrible role model for his younger brother.
Dad was working in his garden all morning.

During the mid-50s, real estate speculators were buying all the swampland in Central Florida, and innocent people were investing all their money in bogus development projects.

Was he being good to you?

2* This time last year I was living in Spain. What were you doing at 10 o'clock last night ?

3* Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking the lunch

While I was working in the garden , I hurt my back.

I saw Jim in the park. He was sitting on the grass.

It was raining when I got up .

Carlos lost his watch while he was running.I was sleeping on the couch when Bertie smashed through the door.

5* Tom was cooking the dinner . (He was in the middle of cooking, we don't know wether he finished or not).


COMPARE:

 When Tom arrived,
- we were having dinner. (We had already started dinner before Tom arrived )
- we had dinner ( Tom arrived and we had dinner )

You've been smoking too much recently. You should smoke less.
 
 Ann has been writing letters all day.
Nam Phương
 
4- QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH/QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN
 


THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH
Thì quá khứ hoàn thành diễn tả 1 hành động đã xảy ra và kết thúc trong quá khứ trước 1 hành động khác cũng xảy ra và kết thúc trong quá khứ.
CHỦ TỪ + HAD + QUÁ KHỨ PHÂN TỪ
I had just finished watering the lawn when it began to rain.
She had studied English before she came to the U.S.
After he had eaten breakfast, he went to school.
THÌ QUÁ KHỨ HOÀN THÀNH TIẾP DIỄN
Cụm và từ ngữ chỉ thời gian:  Until then, by the time, prior to that time, before, after
Dùng thì quá khứ hoàn thành cho hành động thứ nhất.  Dùng thì quá khứ cho hành động thứ hai.
Mẹo:  Quí vị có thể nhớ theo cách này.
Chữ cái tiếng Anh    A         B          C.......
"A" đứng vị trí thứ nhất và "A" là chữ cái đầu tiên của chữ "After".  Cho nên After + hành động thứ nhất.
Trước tiên:  Alex had gone to bed.  
Sau đó':  He couldn't sleep.
After Alex had gone to bed, he couldn't sleep.
Trước tiên:  Jessica had cooked dinner.  
Sau đó':  Her boyfriend came.
Jessica's boyfriend came after she had cooked dinner.
"B" đứng ở vị trí thứ hai, và "B" là chữ cái đầu tiên của chữ "Before".  Cho nên Before + hành động thứ 2.               
Trước tiên:  Kimberly had taken the test.  
Sau đó':  She went home yesterday.
Kimberly had taken the test before she went home yesterday.
Trước tiên:  Brandon had brushed his teeth.  
Sau đó':  He went to bed. 
Before Brandon went to bed, he had brushed his teeth.
Kevin Khôi Trương
We had been living in Santa Ana for 2 years before we moved to Garden Grove.
 
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS




TÓM TẮT:

Ðể diễn tả một hành động kéo dài, ÐÃ CHẤM DỨT ở một thời diểm trong quá khứ.

Không có Past perfect progressive cho "To be". "Had been Being" được diễn tả bằng "Had been" .



***


THE PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE indicates a continuous action that was completed at some point in the past.

This tense is formed with the modal "HAD" plus "BEEN," plus the present participle of the verb (with an -ing ending):

"I had been working in the garden all morning. George had been painting his house for weeks, but he finally gave up."

I hadn't been going
You hadn't been going
He hadn't been going
We hadn't been going
You hadn't been going
They hadn't been going


To say how long st had been happening before something else happened

It had been raining (the sun was shining and the ground was wet it had stopped raining. )

I was very tired when I arrived home , I had been working hard all day

He was out of breath . He had been running

The house was quiet when I got home. Everybody had gone to bed.

Tom wasn't there when I arrived : he had just gone out

The man was a complete st ranger to me . I had never seen before.

Bill no longer had his car: he had sold it


NOTE:

There is no past perfect progressive for the "to be" verb. "Had been being" is expressed simply as "had been":

"We had been successful before, but we somehow lost our knack."
Nam Phương
5- TƯƠNG LAI/TƯƠNG LAI...
 3 users thanked mylove91 for this useful post.
Maiphuongdo on 5/7/2011(UTC), huy824967 on 8/19/2012(UTC), admin on 5/6/2013(UTC)
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emily
#2 Posted : Wednesday, November 12, 2008 2:04:22 AM(UTC)
emily

Rank: Ordinary Member

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Joined: 11/12/2008(UTC)
Posts: 7
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Location: Hanoi

Was thanked: 1 time(s) in 1 post(s)

Mình muốn bổ sung 1 điểm nữa là thì hiện tại tiếp diễn còn có 1 cách sử dụng cũng tương đối quan trọng, thường dùng với các phó từ như: always, all the time để chỉ một hành động thường xuyên xảy ra gây sự khó chịu và bực bội cho người khác, eg:  He is always asking questions. Or he is smoking all the time

 1 user thanked emily for this useful post.
dieulan93 on 8/4/2010(UTC)
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